APA 7 Citations: Text: Print and Online

This guide replaces the APA Citations guide for the 6th edition.

What Does the APA Mean by Textual Works?

  • Periodicals include journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, and blogs, and other online platforms that publish articles.
  • Books, ebooks, and reference works including authored and edited books, anthologies, religious works, and classical works.  Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias (including Wikipedia), and diagnostic manuals. For ebooks, the format, platform or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in reference. For audiobooks, include the narrator and audiobook notation only in specific cases (see examples 22, p. 321 and 29, p. 323).
    • Note: For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the entire book and provide the chapter number with the in-text citation only.
  • Reports include government, technical, and  research reports which usually entail original research but may or may not be peer reviewed.  They are sometimes referred to as gray literature. Gray literature includes press releases, codes of ethics, grants, policy briefs, issue briefs, annual reports, and more.  It is optional, but often helpful - to describe these less common types of gray literature  in square brackets after the title.
  • Conference sessions and presentations include paper presentations, poster sessions, keynote addresses, and symposium contributions.
  • Dissertations and theses, including doctoral dissertations and master's and undergraduate theses.  How their references are constructed depends on whether each is published or unpublished. See the two templates below to see how these are handled.
  • Reviews of books, films, TV shows, albums, and other entertainment are published in a variety of outlets, including journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, and blogs.  The reference format for a review should be the same as the format for that type of content appearing in that source, with the addition of information about the item being reviewed.  Place this information inside square brackets [Review of the...] after the review title.
  • Unpublished works and informally published works include work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, or has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication. Informally published works include work that is available from a preprint archive or a repository, an electronic archive such as ERIC, an institutional archive, a government archive, a personal website or other sources.  Try to work with the final published version of your source. The date should be the year it was completed or the year the draft was written. After the title, describe the status of the work in square brackets.  When the source of the unpublished work is known, include it in the source part of the reference.  Include a DOI or URL when available for informally published works.

DSM-5 (a diagnostic manual)

Here is the reference citation for the DSM-5:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Note: When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.

In-text citations for the DSM-5:

Note: Identify the title and the edition of a diagnostic manual in the text and include a citation the first time it is mentioned.  If the first mention appears in a heading, cite it within the first paragraph of that section.  Repeat a citation when it directly supports a statement but do not repeat the citation for other general mentions of a manual.

  • Parenthetical citation with abbreviation included: (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
  • Narrative citation with abbreviation included: American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)

Note: After you define an abbreviation, as in the citations above, use only the abbreviation in your text.

  • Subsequent parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
  • Subsequent narrative citations: American Psychiatric Association (2013)

See information about how to cite from the DSM-5 on p. 324 and how to use abbreviations on p. 173, section 6.25 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. See other examples at https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/diagnostic-manual-references.

OER Textbook Citation Questions?

Go to the Online Media page to find an example of how to cite open educational resources (OER).

Citing Books and eBooks YouTube Video

Citing Periodicals in APA 7 YouTube Video

APA Examples of References and Citations for Textual Works

APA's Newly Published Reference Examples for Textual Works

Here are some new reference and citation examples for text sources published only in APA's March 13th, 2020 blog post and linked here.

Metadata Search for DOIs in Crossref

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