APA 7 Citations: Text: Print and Online

This guide replaces the APA Citations guide for the 6th edition.

What Does the APA Mean by Textual Works?

  • Periodicals include journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, and blogs, and other online platforms that publish articles.
  • Books, ebooks, and reference works including authored and edited books, anthologies, religious works, and classical works.  Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias (including Wikipedia), and diagnostic manuals. For ebooks, the format, platform or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in reference. For audiobooks, include the narrator and audiobook notation only in specific cases (see examples 22, p. 321 and 29, p. 323).
    • Note: For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the entire book and provide the chapter number with the in-text citation only.
  • Reports include government, technical, and  research reports which usually entail original research but may or may not be peer reviewed.  They are sometimes referred to as gray literature. Gray literature includes press releases, codes of ethics, grants, policy briefs, issue briefs, annual reports, and more.  It is optional, but often helpful - to describe these less common types of gray literature  in square brackets after the title.
  • Conference sessions and presentations include paper presentations, poster sessions, keynote addresses, and symposium contributions.
  • Dissertations and theses, including doctoral dissertations and master's and undergraduate theses.  How their references are constructed depends on whether each is published or unpublished. See the two templates below to see how these are handled.
  • Reviews of books, films, TV shows, albums, and other entertainment are published in a variety of outlets, including journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, and blogs.  The reference format for a review should be the same as the format for that type of content appearing in that source, with the addition of information about the item being reviewed.  Place this information inside square brackets [Review of the...] after the review title.
  • Unpublished works and informally published works include work that is in progress, has been completed but not yet submitted for publication, or has been submitted but not yet accepted for publication. Informally published works include work that is available from a preprint archive or a repository, an electronic archive such as ERIC, an institutional archive, a government archive, a personal website or other sources.  Try to work with the final published version of your source. The date should be the year it was completed or the year the draft was written. After the title, describe the status of the work in square brackets.  When the source of the unpublished work is known, include it in the source part of the reference.  Include a DOI or URL when available for informally published works.

Miscellaneous Citation Examples

Book with one author

Koontz, D. R. (2000). Tick tock. Bantam Books.

Book with 2-20 authors

Preston, D. J, & Child, L. (2003). The cabinet of curiosities. Warner Books.

Group author

American Heart Association. (1996). American Heart Association guide to heart attack: Treatment, recovery and prevention. Times Books.

Edited book

Doezema, M. & Milroy, E. (Eds.). (1998). Reading American art. Yale University Press.

Article/chapter in edited book

Welty, E. (2012). Clamorous to learn. In L. H. Peterson, et al. (Eds.), The Norton reader: An anthology of nonfiction (13th ed., pp. 350-355). Norton.

Entry in a dictionary

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved May 5, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

Entry in an encyclopedia

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

Newspaper article

Girish, D. (2020, May 29). A black woman's #metoo quest entails added tensions. The New York Times.

NOTE: - no URL – see sec. 9.34 in APA 7 manual

Scholarly article

White, H. E. (2019, April). Making black lives matter: Properly valuing the rights of the marginalized in Constitutional torts. Yale Law Journal, 128(6), 1742-1791.

Wikipedia article – pg. 329

Pack horse library project. (2020, June 15). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pack_Horse_Library_Project&oldid=953745114

 

DSM-5 (a diagnostic manual)

Here is the reference citation for the DSM-5:

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Note: When the author and the publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.

In-text citations for the DSM-5:

Note: Identify the title and the edition of a diagnostic manual in the text and include a citation the first time it is mentioned.  If the first mention appears in a heading, cite it within the first paragraph of that section.  Repeat a citation when it directly supports a statement but do not repeat the citation for other general mentions of a manual.

  • Parenthetical citation with abbreviation included: (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
  • Narrative citation with abbreviation included: American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)

Note: After you define an abbreviation, as in the citations above, use only the abbreviation in your text.

  • Subsequent parenthetical citations: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)
  • Subsequent narrative citations: American Psychiatric Association (2013)

See information about how to cite from the DSM-5 on p. 324 and how to use abbreviations on p. 173, section 6.25 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. See other examples at https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/diagnostic-manual-references.

OER Textbook Citation Questions?

Go to the Online Media page to find an example of how to cite open educational resources (OER).

Citing Business Resources

Metadata Search for DOIs in Crossref

Video - Citing Books and eBooks

Video - Citing Periodicals in APA 7

APA Examples of References and Citations for Textual Works

APA's Newly Published Reference Examples for Textual Works

Here are some new reference and citation examples for text sources published only in APA's March 13th, 2020 blog post and linked here.

Templates and Some Citation Examples for Each Sort of Text (1 of 2)

Each template gives you the order and formatting for each part of a reference citation (author, date,title, and source) for the specific kind of text you have found, whether it is in print or online. 
 
Template for Citing Periodicals

When citing sources published periodically such as newspapers, magazines, and journals:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Periodical Information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

Author, C. C. [username].

Username.

(2020).

(2020, January).

(2020, February 16).

Title of article.

Title of Periodical, 34(2), 5-14.

Title of Periodical, 2(1-2), Article 12.

Title of Periodical.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 316, Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works are described in-depth on pp. 316-321.

 

Template for Citing Books and Reference Works

When citing books and reference works:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Publisher information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

 

Editor, E.E. (Ed.).

Editor, E.E., & Editor, F.F. (Eds.).

(2020).

(2020, January).

(2020, February 16).

Title of book.

Title of book (2nd ed., Vol. 4).

Title of book [Audiobook].

 

Title of book (E. E. Editor, Ed.).

Title of book (T. Translator, Trans.; N. Narrator, Narr.).

Publisher Name.

First Publisher Name; Second Publisher Name.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 321, Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works are described in-depth on pp. 316-321.

 

Template for Citing Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference Works

When citing chapters of edited books or a work in an anthology or an entry from a dictionary, thesaurus, or an encyclopedia:

Chapter Author

Date

Chapter Title

Source

Edited book

information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020).

Title of chapter.

In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. 3-13). Publisher Name.

In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 212-255). Publisher Name.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 326 of Seventh Edition:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Note: For a chapter from an authored book, create a reference of the whole book and provide the chapter number with the in-text citation only.

(Author, Year, Chapter number)

Example: (Smith, 2020, Chapter 9).

Textual Works (pp. 316-321)

 

Template for Citing Reports and Gray Literature

When citing government, technical, and research reports:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Publisher information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020).

(2020, May 2).

Title of report.

Title of report, (Report No. 123).

Title of gray literature [Description].

Publisher Name.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 329 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Note: Reports may or may not be peer reviewed and are considered to be gray literature.

Gray literature includes press releases, codes of ethics, grants, policy briefs, issue briefs, and more.

It is optional but helpful to describe less common types of gray literature in square brackets [] after the title.

Textual Works (pp. 316-321)

 

Template for Conference Sessions and Presentations

When citing conference sessions and presentations, including paper presentations, poster sessions, keynote addresses:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Conference information

DOI or URL

Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B.

(2020, September 18-20).

(2020, October 30-November 1).

Title of contribution [Type of contribution].

Conference Name, Location.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 332, Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

 

Template for Symposium Contributions

Author

Date

Contribution title

Source

Conference information

DOI or URL

Contributor, A. A., & Contributor, B. B.

(2020, September 18-20).

(2020, October 30-November 1).

Title of contribution.

In C. C. Chairperson (Chair), Title of symposium [Symposium]. Conference Name, Location.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 332, Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works are described in-depth on pp. 316-321.

Templates and Some Citation Examples for Each Sort of Text (2 of 2)

Template for Citing Unpublished Dissertations or Theses

When citing unpublished dissertations or theses, the university name appears in the source.

Create your citations in the following order and formatting:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Author, A. A.

(2020).

Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation].

Title of thesis [Unpublished master’s thesis].

Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Source: p. 333 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Template for Citing Published Dissertations or Theses

When citing published dissertations or theses, the university name appears in square brackets [] after the title.

Author

Date

Title

Source

Database or archive name

URL

Author, A. A.

(2020).

Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

Title of thesis [Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree].

Database Name.

Archive Name.

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 333 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works (pp. 316-321)

Template for Citing Reviews

When citing reviews, the reference format should be the same as the format for the type of content appearing within that source, with the addition of information about the item being reviewed in square brackets [ ] after the review title.  

Create your citations in the following order and formatting:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Review title

Details of reviewed work

Periodical information

DOI or URL

Reviewer, A. A.

(2020).

(2020, February 3).

Title of review

[Review of the book Book title, by A. A. Author].

[Review of the book Book title, by E. E. Editor, Ed.]

[Review of the film Film title, by D. D. Director, Dir.].

[Review of the TV series episode “Episode title,” by W. W. Writer, Writer, & D. D. Director, Dir.].

Periodical Title, 34(2), 14-15.

Blog Title.

https://doi.org/xxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 334 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works (pp. 316-321)

Templates for Citing Unpublished or Informally Published Works

For unpublished works

When citing an unpublished work:

Author

Date

Title

Source

University information

URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

(2020).

Title of the work [Unpublished manuscript].

Title of work [Manuscript in preparation].

Title of work [Manuscript submitted for publication].

Department Name, University Name.

https://xxxxx

p. 336 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

For informally published works

When citing informally published works:

Author

Date

Title

Source

Database or archive information

DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

(2020).

Title of the work.

Title of work (Publication No. 123).

Name of Database.

Name of Archive.

https://doi.org/xxxxx

https://xxxxx

Source: p. 336 of Seventh Edition: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Textual Works (pp. 316-321)

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