APA Reference Examples - Scroll down this page to see reference and in-text citation examples by type of source. See additional new examples in Chelsea Lee's March 13, 2020 blog post New Reference Examples on the APA Style Website.
journal, magazine, or newspaper
book or ebook
edited book chapter
dissertation or thesis
unpublished or informally published work
social media post
website or webpage
apparatuses, and equipment
tests, scales, and inventories
Note: Whether you retrieved your source from the Internet, a library, an academic database, through interlibrary loan or borrowed it from a friend, the retrieval method usually doesn't matter in APA.
"The purpose of a reference list entry is to provide readers with the details they will need to perform a search themselves, if necessary, not to replicate the path the author [you] personally used" (American Psychological Association 2019 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., p. 296).
If your reader is not going to be able to recover a source you have used, do not include it in the References list. Sources such as personal emails, classroom lectures, intranet sources, or online works that are no longer accessible should only be cited within your text as personal communications (American Psychological Association 2019 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., p. 300, section 9.37).
In APA Style, learn the difference between title case and sentence case and when to use each.
Have you conducted an interview with another person or persons as a means to obtain information to support your research? An interview is considered to be personal communication.
There are now guidelines for annotated bibliographies on pages 307-308, section 9.51 with a sample on page 307, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.
“An annotated bibliography is a type of student paper in which reference list entries are followed by short descriptions of the work called annotations.” See your instructor for specific guidelines for annotated bibliographies.
Annotations are indented 0.5” from the left-hand margin.
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