Business Information Sources: Cite Business Sources

This guide will direct you to resources for finding company, industry, and other business related information.

About APA 7 Style

Please Note: Reference examples from this guide are an interpretation of APA 7 guidelines specifically for Columbus State students and are not necessarily the definitive way to cite these sources. Be sure to ask your instructor about citation style requirements for your course assignments.

While APA guidelines are clear for citing standard publication types, such as newspaper articles, they do not necessarily account for the unique features of many business resources, such as dynamic industry and company reports. Many reports and documents found within business databases are classified as gray literature, and can be tricky to cite, especially when it's difficult to determine an author or exact title. This guide offers reference list examples for various business sources available through Columbus State Library and on the open internet. In some cases, you may need to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition and interpret the rules to the best of your own ability.


Some Things to Remember: 

  • If there is no individual author for your source, use the name of the publisher or organization as the author. Do not include anything like Inc., LLC, etc. in the author name, even if it’s a corporate author. See section 9.29 in the Publication Manual.
  • If the publisher is the same as the author, you do not need to repeat the publisher name in the source element (see template below).
  • If there is no date, use: n.d. See section 9.17 in the Publication Manual.
    • Example: Infogroup. (n.d.).
  • For works without a title, include a description of the work, non italicized, in square brackets instead. See section 9.22 in the Publication Manual.
    • Example: [List of sporting goods stores in Franklin county, OH].
  • When necessary, use square brackets to enclose a description of form for some works, such as press releases or company profiles. Provide your description of the work, non italicized, in square brackets after the title and before the period. See section 9.21 in the Publication Manual.
    • Example: Starbucks Corp [Company profile].
  • Treat reports and gray literature from Columbus State Library's business databases as Works of Limited Circulation, meaning: Provide the name of the database in the source element (in title case without italics), just after the title, followed by a period. Finally, if there is a permalink available for the work, include that URL at the end of your reference. If there is no permalink available, use the user-friendly URL of that database's Columbus State login page. See specific examples in this guide for more details. For more information, read Database Information in References from APA Style. 
    • Example: ReferenceUSA. https://library.cscc.edu/refUSA
  • Only include a retrieval date if the work is unarchived and designed to change over time, or if no publication date is available. See section 9.16 in the Publication Manual
    • Example: Retrieved July 2, 2020, from https://xxxxx

Use the template below to construct your references for reports and gray literature.


For more information about citing reports and gray literature, see section 10.4 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.

More on APA 7 Citations

CSCC Database Login URLs

Use these user-friendly URLs at the end of your reference entry when no permalink is available to link directly to your source:

Business Source Complete: https://library.cscc.edu/businesssource

Factiva: https://library.cscc.edu/factiva

Mergent Intellect: https://library.cscc.edu/mergent

Nexis Uni: https://library.cscc.edu/nexisuni

ReferenceUSA: https://library.cscc.edu/refUSA

Business Source Complete

While MarketLine reports are sometimes also available through Nexis Uni, they are not consistently so. Additionally, Columbus State students do not have free access to Barnes reports outside of Business Source Complete, so we consider these Works of Limited Circulation for students. Do include database info for reports and gray literature retrieved from Business Source Complete, as well as the permalink to documents.

To find the permalink for documents in Business Source Complete, click on the chainlink symbol on the right hand side of your page: undefined


SWOT Analysis

Example:

MarketLine. (2020, February 6). Wendy’s Company SWOT analysis. Business Source Complete. https://login.cscc.ohionet.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=bth&AN=142646086&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (MarketLine, 2020)


Company Profile

Example:

MarketLine. (2020, February 6). The Wendy's Company [Company profile]. Business Source Complete. https://login.cscc.ohionet.org/login?url= https://search-ebscohost-com.cscc.ohionet.org/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=dmhls&AN=287E7AF2-3DF0-4BF7-8163-DB72923D7748&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (MarketLine, 2020)


Industry Report

Example: 

C. Barnes & Co. (2020). Fast food restaurants industry (NAICS: 722513) [Industry report]. Business Source Complete. https://login.cscc.ohionet.org/login?url= https://search-ebscohost-com.cscc.ohionet.org/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,uid&db=bth&AN=141147977&site=ehost-live

In-Text Citation: (C. Barnes & Co., 2020)


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Factiva

FactSet Research Systems is the corporate author of company and industry reports retrieved from Factiva. Factiva does not provide permalinks for these types of works, so use the CSCC database login page URL at the end of your reference entry.


Company Snapshot

FactSet Research Systems. (2020). Gap Inc. company snapshot. Factiva. https://library.cscc.edu/factiva

In-Text Citation: (FactSet Research Systems, 2020)


Industry Snapshot

FactSet Research Systems. (2020). Clothing stores industry snapshot. Factiva. https://library.cscc.edu/factiva

In-Text Citation: (FactSet Research Systems, 2020)


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Mergent Intellect

Mergent Intellect contains multiple specialized databases, such as First Research and Key Business Ratios. The author of works for these sources will change depending on which database within Mergent is being used. Use the name of the specific database in the source element of your reference. Mergent Intellect and its specialized databases do not provide permalinks for these types of works, so use the CSCC database login page URL at the end of your reference entry. 


First Research: Industry Profile

Example:

Dun & Bradstreet. (2020, June 15). Breakfast cereal manufacturing [Industry profile]. First Research. https://library.cscc.edu/mergent

In-Text Citation: (Dun & Bradstreet, 2020)


Mergent Intellect: Company Information

Example:

Mergent. (n.d.) Kellogg Company: Company description. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved June 30, 2020, from https://library.cscc.edu/mergent

In-Text Citation: (Mergent, n.d.)


Key Business Ratios: Company Ratios

Example:

Dun & Bradstreet. (2019). Kellogg Co: Ratio analysis. Key Business Ratios. https://library.cscc.edu/mergent

In-Text Citation: (Dun & Bradstreet, 2019)


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Nexis Uni

Nexis Uni pulls information from various sources for its reports, so be sure to look closely for an author, which will usually be a corporation. Nexis Uni does not provide permalinks for its dossiers or executive profiles, so use the CSCC database login page URL at the end of your reference entry.


Company Dossier

Example:

LexisNexis Corporate Affiliations. (n.d.). The Procter & Gamble Company [Company profile]. Nexis Uni. Retrieved June 30, 2020 from https://library.cscc.edu/nexisuni

In-Text Citation: (LexisNexis, n.d.)


Executive Profile

Example:

Zoom People Information. (2020, January). Jim Hackett. Nexis Uni. https://library.cscc.edu/nexisuni

In-Text Citation: (Zoom People Information, 2020)


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ReferenceUSA

Data Axle is the corporate author of ReferenceUSA. Include a retrieval date, because ReferenceUSA reports are subject to change over time. ReferenceUSA does not provide permalinks, so use the CSCC database login page URL at the end of your reference entry.


Company Profile

Tip: Find the publication date of a company profile by looking at "Last Updated On" under the Business Demographics section.

Note: If the title of the company profile is sufficiently unique to identify the company profile (i.e. there is only one of that company in that city and state), then the company name with city is the title.

Example:

Data Axle. (2020, May). Weiland's Fine Meats, Columbus, OH [Company profile]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved June 24, 2020, from https://library.cscc.edu/refUSA

In-Text Citation: (Data Axle, 2020)

Note: If there are multiple locations of that business in that city/state, include the exact address in parentheses as a form of unique number identifier.

Example:

Data Axle. (2020, May). Meijer (5555 Cleveland Ave, Columbus, OH) [Company profile]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved June 24, 2020, from https://library.cscc.edu/refUSA

In-Text Citation: (Data Axle, 2020)


Company Lists or Directories

Since there is no official title for company lists, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Publication Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Example:

Data Axle. (n.d.). [List of hotels & motels in Columbus, OH metro area]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved June, 24, 2020, from https://library.cscc.edu/refUSA

In-Text Citation: (Data Axle, n.d.)


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Census.gov

According to APA 7, when numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference. The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. See section 9.11 in the Publication Manual.


Census QuickFacts

Example:

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.) QuickFacts: Columbus city, Ohio. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 6, 2020 from https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/columbuscityohio/PST045219

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)


Census Business Builder

Example:

U.S. Census Builder, (n.d.) Local business profile: Electrical - Hilliard city, Ohio. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 6, 2020, from https://cbb.census.gov/sbe/#

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Builder, n.d.)


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EDGAR (SEC Filings)

EDGAR is the Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis, and Retrieval system used at the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). EDGAR is the primary system for submissions by publicly traded companies who are required by law to file information with the SEC. EDGAR can be accessed for free by anyone.


Example:

Kroger. (2020). Form 10-K. https://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/companysearch.html

In-Text Citation: (Kroger, 2020)


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NAICS Codes

North American Industrial Classification System codes (NAICS) are used to classify and thereby organize industries, and are useful for performing industry research in business databases.


Example:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). 2017 NAICS definition: 441320, tire dealers. https://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/

In-Text Citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017)


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SIC Codes

Standard Industrial Classification codes (SIC) are used to classify and thereby organize industries, and are useful for performing industry research in business databases. NAICS was adopted to replace SIC in 1997, but SIC codes are still used in industry research.

According to APA 7, when numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference. The names of parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher. See section 9.11 in the Publication Manual.


Example:

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (1987). Description for 0781: Landscape counseling and planning. United States Department of Labor. https://www.osha.gov/pls/imis/sicsearch.html

In-Text Citation: (Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1987)


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Annual Company Reports

Annual reports can typically be found on company websites. The company name is the author of the report.


Example:

Target Corporation. (2020). 2019 annual report. https://corporate.target.com/annual-reports/2019

In-Text Citation: (Target Corporation, 2020)


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Esri Tapestry Segmentation

Esri Tapestry Segment summaries and the ZIP Lookup tool are available online for free. Esri is the corporate author of these sources.


Tapestry Segment Summaries

Example:

Esri. (2020). 8A city lights [Demographic profile]. https://doc.arcgis.com/en/esri-demographics/data/tapestry-segmentation.htm

In-Text Citation: (Esri, 2020)


Tapestry Segmentation ZIP Lookup

Since there is no official title for data found in ZIP Lookup results, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Publication Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Example:

Esri. (n.d.) [ZIP, county, and state metric comparisons for population density in ZIP code 43224] [Data set]. Retrieved on July 1, 2020 from https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/tapestry-segmentation/zip-lookup

In-Text Citation: (Esri, n.d.)


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Attribution

Parts of this guide are adapted from "APA 7th edition citation for business sources" which is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

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