APA Citations: Other Sources

Guidelines and examples for citing research sources using APA format. Also includes information on citation generators.

Citation Examples - Other Sources

Click on the links below for specific citation examples





(Personal Communications)

(APA 6.20; apastyle.org)

If the interview is in a form that is recoverable (recording, transcript, published Q&A, etc.) use the citation format for the source in which the interview is available. As with any reference, the purpose is to direct the reader to the source.

Reference List:

Example of Broadcast Interview

Dugard, J. (2011).  Interview by D. Sawyer [Television episode]. In Cibrowski, T. (Executive producer), Good Morning America. New York, NY: ABC News.

In theText:

(Dugard, 2011).


Otherwise, interviews are considered "personal communications." Since personal communications aren't retrievable, there is no need to put them in the reference list. Instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in the main text only.

In the Text:

Ex. 1. (J. Smith, personal communication, July 1, 2012).


Ex. 2. Jim Smith advised the students to use APA format (personal communication, July 1, 2012).

Music Recording

Music Recording

(APA 7.07)

Basic Format

Writer Last Name, Initials of First Name/Middle Name. (Copyright Year). Song title [Recorded by Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)


Reference List:

Joplin, S. (1899). Maple Leaf Rag [Recorded by R. Zimmerman]. On The Complete Works of Scott Joplin [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: LaserLight. (1993).

If the song is recorded by someone other than the writer, indicate the name of the person who recorded the song immediately after the song title in normal order (Example B. B. Smith). Enclose in brackets.

In the Text

. . ."Maple Leaf Rag" (Joplin, 1993, track 8).

In text citations include side and band or track numbers.

Visual Art

Visual Art

(Paintings, sculpture, photograph, etc.)



APA offers no advice about citing everyday illustrations, graphs or other images that are published within books, magazines, journals or on Web sites. 

A good reference contains enough information to lead your reader to the source you used. This should include the artist's name, year work was created, title of the work, location and any other information that is necessary or relevant.

Original Piece

La Farge, J. (1890). Girl in grass dress [Painting]. Columbus, OH: Columbus Museum of Art.

Reproduction in Print

La Farge, J. (1890). Girl in grass dress [Painting]. In N. J. Roberts, (Ed.), The American collections: Columbus Museum of Art (1988, p. 26). Columbus, OH: Columbus Museum of Art. 


La Farge, J. (1890). Girl in grass dress. Retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/




(APA 7.07, ex. 49; apastyle.org)

Basic Format
Name of Primary Contributor. (Contribution). (Date Produced). Production title [Format of production]. Country of Origin: Studio or Distributor.
Reference List:
Davis, B. (Producer) & George, S. (Writer). (2007). Crips and Bloods: Made in America [DVD]. United States : (Available from Bullfrog Films, P. O. Box 149, Oley, PA 19547). 

List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.

List the format of the item in brackets immediately after the title.

If a movie or videotape is not available in wide distribution, add the following after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name, full address and zip code).

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