APA Citations: Print

Guidelines and examples for citing research sources using APA format. Also includes information on citation generators.

Citation Examples - Periodicals

Click on the links below for specific citation examples

Notes on Basic APA Style Rules

The American Psychological Association has established its style rules, called APA style, to advance rigorous standards for scientific communication. Researchers in the fields of psychology, education, social work, nursing and business are the primary users of APA style.

  • Title Page: Information for the citation should come from the Title Page or Copyright Page of the book, not the cover.
  • Authors:
    • Invert all authors' names; give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors.
    • Note: Insert one space after periods of the initials in personal names (ex. L. R.).
    • With two to seven authors, use an ampersand (&) before the last author.
    • When there are eight or more authors, include the first six authors' names, then insert three ellipsis points (...) and add the last author's name.
    • Use commas to separate authors, to separate surnames and initials, and to separate initials and suffixes (ex. King, M. L., Jr.).
    • Spell out the full name of a group author (American Psychological Association) followed by a period.
  • Editors:
    • With an edited book, place the editors' names in the author position, and enclose the abbreviation Ed. or Eds.in parentheses. Follow with a period.
    • When citing a chapter in an edited book, invert the chapter authors' names, but don't invert the book editors' names.
    • The name of the book editor should be preceded by the word In.
    • Provide initials and surnames for all editors. If the work has a large editorial board, naming the lead editor followed by et al. is acceptable.
  • Titles: Formatting of titles depends on:
  1. Whether the source stands alone (book, film, report, etc. vs. whether it is part of a greater whole (chapter or article title, dictionary entry, etc.) and
  2. Location of the title (in the text of the paper vs. in the reference list entry).

    1. Capitalization Rules - Title Case vs. Sentence Case
       
      • Title Case
      • Used in References that appear in the text of the paper
         
      • Used with all periodical titles - magazines, newspapers, and journals (Ex. American Journal of Nursing).
         
      • Most words are capitalized (Ex. Gone With the Wind).
         
      • Capitalize the first word of the title or subtitle.
      • Capitalize "major" words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns)
         
      • Capitalize all words of four letters or more.

      • Sentence Case
         
      • Used in References when they appear in the Reference List
         
      • Most words are in lower case
         
      • Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle and/or words that follow a colon (Ex. The Blair reader: Exploring issues and ideas)
         
      • Capitalize proper nouns.
    • Italicize titles of works that stand alone in the text and in the reference list. Do NOT italicize article or chapter titles.
       
    • Additional information given on the publication for its identification and retrieval such as edition, report number or volume number should be enclosed in parentheses immediately following the title. Do not use a period between the title and the parenthetical information. Don't italicize the information. Finish the element with a period. (Ex. Radioactive waste: Production, storage, disposal (Publication No.NUREG/BR-0216).
    • Nonroutine Information in Titles:  If nonroutine information is important for identification and retrieval, provide it in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information. Capitalize the first letter of the notation. Here are some common notations that help identify works:
    • [Letter to the editor]
    • [Special issue]
    • [Abstract]
    • [Data file]
    • [Brochure]
    • [Lecture notes]
    • [CD]
    • [Supplemental material]
    • [Computer software]
    • [Motion picture]
    • [Audio podcast]
  • Abbreviations: In general, use abbreviations sparingly to maximize clarity. Use only those abbreviations that will help you communicate with your reader. Ask yourself: 1. Is the abbreviation conventional enough that the reader will be familiar with it? and 2. If considerable space can be saved when using an abbreviation instead of a cumbersome title. Here are some common abbreviations. Use them as appropriate:
    • n.d. -  no date
    • ed. -  (edition)
    • Rev. ed. - revised edition
    • 2nd ed. - second edition
    • Ed. or Eds. -  (Editor[s])
    • p. or pp. - (Page[s])
    • Vol. or Vols. - (Volume[s])
    • et al. -  (and others)
    • APA Style allows the use of abbreviations that appear as word entries (not labeled abbr) in Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (2005). This includes abbreviations such as AIDS, HIV, IQ, ESP, etc.
    • Do not abbreviate months (December, not Dec.)
       
  • Publication Information
    • Books
      • Provide the location of the publisher (city and state or, if outside the United States, city and country)
      • Use the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviation for U.S. states (ex. OH, NY, CT).
      • To cite locations outside the United States, spell out the city and country names.
      • If two or more publisher locations are listed, give the location listed first or, if specified, the location of the publisher's home office.
      • Give the name of the publisher in as brief a form as is intelligible. Write out the names of associations, corporations, and university presses, but omit superfluous  terms such as Publishers, Co., and Inc. which are not required to identify the publisher. Retain the words Books and Press.
      • If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the name in the publisher location (ex. Columbus: Ohio State University Press).
    • Periodicals
      • Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it. Do not use Vol. before the number.
      • Include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number. Give the number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Do not italicize it.
      • Finish the element with a period (ex. American Journal of Nursing, 23(5).
         
  • Publication Date:
    • Follows after the author name (or title if there's no author)
    • Give in parentheses the year the work was published. For unpublished works, give the year the work was produced.
    • For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, give the year and the exact date of the publication (month or month and day) separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses.
    • If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses.
    • Finish the element with a period after the closing parenthesis.

      

Formatting In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations

  1. In-text citations are placed in parentheses after a quote or paraphrase using an author-date format.
     
  2. Each reference cited in the text must appear in the reference list and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text.
     
    • Exceptions: Generally, references to classical works such as the Bible or the Koran, whole web sites and references to personal communications are cited only in the text.
       
    • Tip: Complete the reference list before adding in-text citations.
       
  3. There are two ways to cite sources in the text of the document:
  • Use a signal phrase that introduces the author's name, followed by the year of publication in parentheses. If you use page numbers, include them in parentheses at the end of the quote or paraphrase.
     
  • If you don't mention the author's name in the text of the document, include the author's last name, year of publication and page number (preceded by p.) in parentheses at the end of the quote or paraphrase.
  1. Include page numbers (preceded by p. or pp.) if you are citing a direct quotation or referring to a specific part of a work such as a chapter title.
    • Include page numbers for newspaper articles and precede the numbers with p.or pp.
    • Include page numbers for magazine and journal articles. Do not precede them with p. or pp.
    • If you are paraphrasing from a work, you are not required to provide a page number, but APA guidelines encourage it.
       
      • Tip: If there are no page numbers, identify the location of the quoted/paraphrased section as specifically as possible by including the number of a paragraph or section from which the text was borrowed.
         
      • If paragraph numbers are visible, use them instead of page numbers. Use the abbreviation, para.

      • If the document includes headings, but no page numbers or paragraph numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material Ex.: (Discussion section, para. 1).
         
      • If the title of the heading is too long to cite in full, use a shortened title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation.
         
  2. In-text citations are placed before the period at the end of the sentence except in the case of a block quotation where the parenthetical citation is placed one space after the concluding punctuation. Ex.: last line of quote. (Smith, 2009, p. 25)

Guidelines for Using APA Style

Click on the links below for guidelines on using APA Style

Books - One Author

One author

(APA 7.02, ex. 18)

 

 

 

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City, ST of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Dittman, M. J. (2007). Masterpieces of beat literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

In the Text (with signal phrase):

Dittman (2007) observed that Joe Smith liked to travel (p. 50).

In the Text (no signal phrase):

Joe Smith loved to travel (Dittman, 2007, p. 50).

Books - Two to Seven Authors

 

Two to seven authors

(APA 6.27)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City, ST of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Parrot, A., & Cummings, N. (2006). Forsaken females: The global brutalization of women. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Reverse all authors' last names. Give last names and first name initials up to and including seven authors. Use an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. List all of the authors’ last names in order of their appearance on the title page of the book.

 In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

In the Text: Works by two authors

Ex. (with signal phrase):
Parrott and Cummings noted that most babies in Chinese orphanages are healthy girls (2006, p. 60).

In the text, use the word "and" before the name of the last author.

Ex. (no signal phrase):
Most babies in Chinese orphanages are healthy girls (Parrott & Cummings, 2006, p. 60).

In parenthetical material and in the reference list, join the names with an ampersand (&).

In theText: Works by three to five authors

Cite the surnames of all authors, separated by commas, the first time the reference is cited in the text. In subsequent citations,  use only the first author’s surname, followed by et al.

Ex. 1st citation:
Smith, Jones, and Tyler believed that George Washington never told lies (1991, p. 278).

Ex2nd citation:
Smith et al. believed that George Washington cut down a cherry tree (1991, p. 344).

In theText: Works by six or seven authors

Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Ex. (with signal phrase):
According to Kelly et al.,singing in the rain is a pleasurable experience (1952, p. 137).

Ex. (no signal phrase):
Singing in the rain is a pleasurable experience (Kelly et al., 1952, p. 137).

Books - More Than Seven Authors

More than seven authors

(APA 7.01, ex. 2)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City, ST of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Gilman, S. L., King, H., Porter, R., Rousseau, G.S., Showalter, E., Grimes, K., . . . West, D. (1993). Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: University of California Press.

If there are more than seven authors, list the names of the first six authors, followed by three spaced ellipsis points (. . .) and the last author's name.

Note: If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the state name in the publisher location.

 In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

In the Text (with signal phrase):

Gilman, et al., (1993) describes the history of hysteria as a history oh how we understand the mind (p. 15).

In the Text (no signal phrase):

A history of hysteria is a history of how we understand the mind (Gilman, et al., 1993, p. 15).

Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Books - Groups/Organizations as Authors

Groups as authors

(APA 6.13)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City, ST of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

American Heart Association. (1996). American Heart Association guide to heart attack: Treatment, recovery and prevention. New York, NY: Times Books.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)
 

Ex.1a.  1st citation (with signal phrase):

The American Heart Association (AHA, 2003) describes how to treat heart attack victims (p. 8).

 

Ex. 1b. 1st citation (no signal phrase):

American Heart Association [AHA], 2003, p.8).

Ex. 2a. 2nd citation (with signal phrase):

The AHA also lists ways to help them recover.
(2003, p.10).

Ex. 2b. 2nd citation (no signal phrase):

(AHA, 2003, p. 10)

The names of groups that serve as authors are usually spelled out each time they appear in an in-text citation. The names of some groups are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter. In deciding whether to abbreviate the name of a group author, the general rule is to provide enough information for the reader to locate the entry in the reference list.

Books - No Author or Editor

 No author or editor

(APA 6.15, 6.27)

Basic Book Format:

Book title. (Publication year). City, ST of publication: Publisher.
Reference List:

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

In a reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication.

 

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)


In the Text (with signal phrase):

The Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) directs writers to italicize the title of a book in the text and in parenthetical citations (p. 176).

In the Text (no signal phrase):

When a work has no identifiable author, parenthetical citations should include the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year (Publication manual, 2010, p. 176).

Books - Anonymous Author

 Anonymous Author

(APA 6.15, 6.25, )

Basic Book Format:

Anonymous. Book title. (Publication year). City, ST of publication: Publisher.
Reference List:

Anonymous. Go Ask Alice. (1971). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

IF a work is signed Anonymous, begin the entry with the word Anonymous spelled out and alphabetize the entry as if Anonymous were a true name.

 

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)


In the Text (with signal phrase):

In Go Ask Alice,
the author identified only as "Anonymous" notes that 1,000 college kids commit suicide every year (1971, p. 104).

In the Text (no signal phrase):
The Doctor said that 1,000 college kids commit suicide every year (Anonymous, 1971, p. 104).

Books - Edited Book

Edited book

(APA 6.27, 7.02)

Basic Book Format:

Editor last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Ed.). (Publication year). Book title. City, ST of publication: Publisher.
 

Reference List:

Doezema, M. & Milroy, E. (Eds.). (1998). Reading American art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
 

In a reference to an edited book, place the editors' names in the author position, and enclose the abbreviation Ed. or Eds. in parentheses after the last editor's name. A period follows the parenthetical abbreviation (Eds.).

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

 

In the Text (with signal phrase)

Doezema and Milroy (1998) discuss how to interpret American art (p. 388).

 
In the Text (no signal phrase)

Grant Woods' painting, American Gothic, is considered a national icon. (Doezema & Milroy, 1998, p. 102).

Books - Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Article or chapter in an edited book 

(APA  6.27, 7.02)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City and state of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Ex. 1

Welty, E. (2012). Clamorous to learn. In L. H. Peterson, et al. (Eds.), The Norton reader: An anthology of nonfiction (13th ed., pp. 350-355). New York, NY: Norton.

Ex. 2

Abraham, N. (2000). Arab Americans.  In J. Lehman (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 108-122). Detroit, MI: Gale.

When referring to a chapter or article in an edited book, invert the article authors' names, but don't invert the book editors' names. The name of the book editor(s) should be preceded by the word In.Provide initials and surnames for all editors (in substantial reference works with a large editorial board, naming the lead editor followed by et al. is acceptable).

Place information about editions, volume numbers, and page numbers in parentheses following the title, with the period after the parentheses. 

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05) 

In the Text (with signal phrase):

Abraham (2000) noted that in the field of poetry, several Arab Americans have achieved recognition (p. 119).

In the Text (no signal phrase):

In the field of poetry, several Arab Americans have achieved recognition (Abraham, 2000, p. 119).

Books - Multivolume Work

Multivolume work

(APA 6.16, 7.02, ex. 23)

(apastyle.org)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City and state of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Pendergast, T., Pendergast, S., & Hermsen, S. (Eds.). (2007a). Graphic novelists (Vol. 1, pp. 121-135). Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale.

Pendergast, T., Pendergast, S., & Hermsen, S. (Eds.). (2007b). Graphic novelists (Vol. 2, pp. 317-324). Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale.

When citing several volumes in a multivolume work, provide a separate entry in the reference list for each volume.

Arrange two or more works by the same author by year of publication. Identify them by the suffixes a, b, c, and so on. 

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

In the Text (with signal phrase):

Pendergast, Pendergast, and Hermsen (2007a; 2007b) included collaborative work by Neil Gaiman and Dave McKean in their Graphic Novelists series.

In the Text (no signal phrase):

Neil Gaiman and Dave McKean collaborated on the graphic novel, The Tragical Comedy or, The Comical Tragedy of Mr. Punch (Pendergast, Pendergast & Hermsen, 2007a, p.134; 2007b, p. 317).

Order the citations of two or more works within the same parentheses in the same order as they appear in the reference list.

Books - Dictionary

Article in a dictionary

(APA 7.02)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year). Book title. City and state of publication: Publisher.
 

Reference List:

Citation. (2004). In Longman dictionary of American English (New Edition, Definition 3, p.153). Edinburgh Gate, England: Pearson Education.

For an entry in a reference work with no byline and/or no editor, the entry title is placed in the author name location.

Precede the title of the reference book with the word In.

Place information about editions, volume numbers, and page numbers in parentheses following the title, with a period after the parentheses. 

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

Example

As used in this context, the word, “citation”, means “a line taken from a book, speech, etc.” (Citation, 2004, p.153).

Books - Encyclopedia

Article in an encyclopedia

(APA 7.02)

Basic Book Format:

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Publication year).  Article title. In Book title. (Information on editions, volumes, etc.). City, ST of publication: Publisher.

Reference List:

Bent, B. E. (2007). Adsorption. In McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology (10th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 162-165). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Place information about editions, volume numbers, and page numbers in parentheses following the title, with the period after the parentheses.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

Example

(Bent, 2007, p. 162).

Books - Scripture/Classical Works

Scripture (Bible, Quran) and other Classical Works

(APA 6.18; apastyle.org)

Reference List:

Reference list entries are not required for "major classical works" or "classical religious works", which includes the Bible, Quran, ancient Greek and Roman works, etc.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

Example 1

The study group will use the Bible (King James Version) to support their religious discussions.

The first time you use the reference, identify the version used, if appropriate. In subsequent references, there is no need to identify the version.

Example 2

The Quran 5:3 specifies some dietary restrictions, such as forbidding Muslims to eat "the flesh of swine."
(Example from apastyle.org)

When quoting or paraphrasing specific parts of a classical work, also provide the relevant names and/or numbers of chapters/verses/lines. 

Classical works are numbered systematically across all editions, so use these references instead of page numbers when referring to specific parts of your source.

Example 3

Plato's Apology recreates the speech given by Socrates as he defended himself in 399 B.C. against charges that he "corrupted the young" (Plato, trans. 1871).

If a date of publication is not available (such as for very old works), cite the year of the translation you used, preceded by trans., or the year of the version you used, followed by version. If you know the original date of publication, include it in the citation.

Articles - Magazine

Magazine article

(APA  6.28, 7.01, ex. 7)


 

Basic Magazine Format

 Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Year, Month Day of publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Page numbers.

Reference List:

Fleming, A. R. (2001, October 3). Gays in the military: Proud to serve. People, 101-102.

For magazines, newsletters, and newspapers, after the author(s) name, give the year and the exact date of the publication (month or month and day), separated by a comma and enclosed in parentheses. Do not abbreviate the following units of time: day, week, month, year.

Page numbers should not be preceded by p. or pp.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)


In the Text (with signal phrase)

Fleming asserts that gays in the military proudly serve their country (2001, p. 101).

In the Text (no signal phrase)

Gays in the military proudly serve their country (Fleming, 2001, p. 101).

Articles - Newspaper

Newspaper article

(APA 6.28, 7.01, ex. 10)

 

Basic Newspaper Format

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Year, Month Day of publication). Article title. Newspaper Title, Page numbers preceded by p. or pp.

Reference List:

Riepenhoff, J. (2007, December 30). Catching up: What’s happened to newsmakers since their stories broke the surface. The Columbus Dispatch, pp. 01A, 03A.

 

Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp. If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.

In the Text:

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05) 

In the Text (with signal phrase)

Riepenhoff wrote that Mrs. Clay and her late husband, Larry, came close to losing the Franklinton house that they owned free and clear in 2000 (2007, p. 01A). 

In the Text (no signal phrase)

Mrs. Clay and her late husband, Larry, came close to losing the Franklinton house that they owned free and clear in 2000 (Riepenhoff, 2007, p. 01A).

Articles - Scholarly Journal

Scholarly journal article

(APA 6.28-6.30, 7.01)

Basic Format for Scholarly Journals

Author last name, Initials of first name/middle name. (Year of Publication). Article title. Journal Title, Volume number(Issue number)Page numbers.

Reference List:

Rubenstein, S. L. (2012). On the importance of visions among the Amazonian Shuar. Current Anthropology, 53(1), 39-79.

Page numbers should not be preceded by p. or pp.

Give the volume number after the periodical title; italicize it. Do not use the word Volume (or the abbreviation, Vol.) before the number.

Include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number. Give the number in parentheses immediately after the volume number. Do not italicize it.

In the Text

APA uses an "author-date" format for in-text citations. If you are directly quoting from a source you must provide a page number for the reference, preceded by "p." If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, APA encourages you to provide the page number, although it is not required. (APA 6.04, 6.05)

In the Text (with signal phrase)


Rubenstein (2012) notes that the Shuar believe that the true determinants of life and death are normally invisible forces which can be seen and utilized only with the aid of hallucinogenic drugs (p.39).

In the Text (no signal phrase)

The Shuar believe that the true determinants of life and death are normally invisible forces which can be seen and utilized only with the aid of hallucinogenic drugs (Rubenstein, 2012, p.39).

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