MLA Citations (7th ed.): Electronic

How to cite research resources using MLA style

Citation Examples - E-Book/Website

Click on the links below for specific citation examples

Citation Examples - Other Electronic Sources

Using MLA Style to Cite Electronic Sources

The Modern Language Association provides guidelines for writing research papers in MLA style. MLA style is primarily used by researchers in the fields of language and literature and is known for its simplicity and flexibility.

Tips on basic MLA formatting (print or electronic sources)

  • Capitalization: Capitalize each word in the title, but don't capitalize short words like articles or prepositions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle (The Art of War, Gone with the Wind).
     
  • Italicize: Italicize titles of books, films, CDs, periodicals, databases and web pages.
  • Abbreviations: Use the following abbreviations as appropriate:
    • n. pag. (no page number)
    • n.p. (no publisher or site sponsor indicated)
    • n.d. (no date of publication)
    • ed. (editor, edition)
    • et al. (and others)
  • Publication Data:
    • In general, provide the city of publication, the publisher's name, and the year of publication.
    • If several cities are listed in the book, give only the first city listed.
    • It is not necessary to identify a state, province or country after the city's name.
    • If the city of publication is not a well-known city, abbreviate the name of the state where the item was published using the official U.S. Postal Service abbreviation (i.e. OH, NY, CT)
    • Provide the name of the publisher as briefly as possible, omitting unnecessary words such as Publishers, Co., or Inc. Retain the words Books and Press.
       
  • Dates: In MLA format, dates should follow the day, month, year format (ex. 10 June 2012)

Tips on Citing Websites

  • MLA suggests two definitions of a "website".

     

    1. All pages affiliated with a particular domain name (ex. www.mla.org).

     

    2. All pages organized by a particular editor or project, even if the project is housed under a larger body's domain name (ex. Victorian Women Writers Project which is housed under the University of Indiana's website (www.indiana.edu).

     

  • According to the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook, URLs are not required when citing materials from the web.
     
  • If you must provide a URL (because the reader wouldn't be able to find it any other way), give it immediately following the date of access, a period, and a space. Enclose the URL in angle brackets, and end with a period. (Ex. 14 June 2012. <http://www.website.org>.)
     
  • If the entire URL doesn't fit on one line, break URLs only after slashes.
  • In addition to the standard citation elements (author, title, and publication information), citing a web site also requires the title of the web site, the website sponsor, medium of publication (Web), and the date of access (important because content on the web is fluid and changes from day to day.)
     
  • In order to find the name of the web site and/or the name of the web site sponsor or publisher, it is sometimes necessary to go to the home page of the site. Sometimes the information is in the banner (top) of the page and sometimes at the very bottom of the page or both places.

Guidelines for Using MLA Style

Click on the links below for guidelines on using MLA Style.

Electronic Book (e-book)

Electronic book

(MLA 5.6.2 b, c)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. Book TitlePrint Publisher Information, Publication Date (if available). Website/Database Name. Website/Database Publisher/Sponsor. Web. Day Month Year of Access.

 Works Cited Page:

Example 1 - Published Online with Print Publication Data Available

Milton, Michael. Head First Data Analysis. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 28 July 2009. Safari Books Online. Web. 5 Aug. 2009.

You may add supplementary information about the database or website (such as its editor, sponsor, or publisher) following its name.

 

Example 2 - Published Online Only

Crane, Norman. The Boy Who Spoke Mosquito. Smashwords. Smashwords, Inc. 29 July 2013. Web. 30 July 2013.

 Include publisher/sponsor of the website; if not available, use N.p.

 

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

Online sources vary in the way they indicate page numbers. If the file has fixed pages (such as a pdf file), cite the page numbers.

If the work is divided into stable numbered sections (such as chapters), the numbers of those sections may be cited, with a label identifying the nature of the number (e. g. ch. 2).

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

Milton emphasizes that the better you understand your client, the more likely your analysis will be of help (6).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

Once in third grade they held Duey Pepper's head inside a terrarium for seven minutes while Mr Winters went out for a cigarette (Crane, para. 1).

There is a comma in a parenthetical citation after the author's name if the following reference begins with a word (e. g. ch. 1).

Electronic Book Read on a Reader

Electronic book

read on a reader

(MLA 5.7.18)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. Book Title Publisher Location:  Publisher, Publication Date. Digital file.

 

Works Cited Page:

Example

Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York:  Levine, 1999. Nook file.

 

MLA considers e-books read on a reader (such as Kindle, Nook, iPad, etc.) "digital files." Different readers use different types of files, such as "epub" or "pdf" and some readers use proprietary types of files. If you know what kind of file your reader uses, you can indicate that (epub file, PDF file, etc.) or you can simply use the name of your reader ("Nook file" or "Kindle file").

 

In theText:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

Rowling introduces Dumbledore in Chapter 2 of Chamber of Secrets (ch.2, par. 2).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

Dumbledore is introduced in Chapter 2 of Chamber of Secrets (Rowling, ch. 2, par. 2).

 

E-readers vary in the way they indicate page numbers. If the page numbers change when you change other settings, it's better to use a location  in your in-text citation instead of page numbers. See example above.

Entire Website

An entire website

(MLA 5.6.2)

 

Tips on Citing Websites

 

MLA suggests two definitions of a "website".
 

1. All pages affiliated with a particular domain name (ex. www.mla.org). See Example 1.
 

2. All pages organized by a particular editor or project, even if the project is housed under a larger body's domain name (ex. Victorian Women Writers Project which is housed under the University of Indiana's website (www.indiana.edu). See Example 2.

 

 

 

Basic Format

Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Website Name. Website Publisher/Sponsor, Day Month Year of Publication (if available). Web. Day Month Year of Access.

 

Works Cited Page:

Ex. 1 - One domain name

Kroger. The Kroger Co., 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2013.
 

Ex. 2 - Project housed under larger body

Courtney, Angela, and Michelle Dalmau, eds. Victorian Women Writers Project. Indiana University, 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

 Use n.p. if there is no publisher name available and n.d. if no publishing date is available.

 

In theText:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 If you cite an entire website,  put the citation in the text only (not in parentheses) using the element that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list. This is because there are no page numbers or reference markers.

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

The Victorian Women Writers Project, edited by Courtney and Dalmau, is concerned with the exposure of lesser-known British women writers of the 19th century.

Article on Website

Article from a website

(MLA 5.6.2)

 

Tips on Citing Websites

 

See

Entire Website

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Website Name. Website Publisher/Sponsor, Day Month Year of Publication. Web. Day Month Year of Access.

 Works Cited Page:
Ex. 1

Andrews, Evan. "History Lists: 11 Things You May Not Know About Ancient Egypt." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 04 Sept. 2013.

Ex. 2 - No Author

"Summary Report for: 25-4021.00 - Librarians." O*NET OnLine. O*NET Resource Center, 2010. Web. 4 Mar. 2013.

 Sometimes it's hard to find an author's name or other bibliographic elements on internet sites. Use the abbreviations n.p. (no publisher/sponsor), n.d (no date), or n. pag. (no page number) if applicable. If there is no author name available, start your citation with the next element, usually the title of the article.

In order to find the name of the web site and/or the name of the web site sponsor or publisher, it is sometimes necessary to go to the home page of the site.

 
In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

According to Summary Report for 25-4021-11 - Librarians, some librarians help develop library policy and procedures.


If there are no page numbers or reference markers, put the citation in the text only (not in parentheses) using the element that begins the corresponding entry in the works cited list.

 Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

Cleopatra was not Egyptian (Andrews, fact 1).

Often there are no page numbers on a website, but there may be reference markers of some kind you can use in place of a page number. (paragraph, heading, etc.)

There is a comma in a parenthetical citation after the author's name if the following reference begins with a word (e. g. Doe, ch. 1).

Magazine/Newspaper - Internet

Article in an online magazine or newspaper

(MLA 5.6.2)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. "ArticleTitle." Website Name. Publisher/Sponsor of Website, Publication Date: Page Numbers. Web. Day Month Year of Access.
 

Works Cited Page:

Ex. 1 - Online Magazine

Burnsed, Brian.“Don't Settle When Choosing an Internship.” U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report, 13 Apr. 2011: n. pag. Web. 15 July 2011.

 

Ex. 2 - Online Newspaper

Hagedorn, Elizabeth. "Have Scientists Unlocked the Flu's Secrets?" Dayton Daily News. Cox Media Group, 21 Oct. 2013: n.pag. Web. 23 Oct. 2013.
 

Cite online magazines and newspapers as you would cite them in print format. Add the web site name (italicized), the web site sponsor or publisher and the date it was published. Change the medium of publication from "Print" to "Web" and add the date you accessed the article. In most cases, there will be no page numbers.

 


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

According to Burnsed, you must take initiative (Fact 3).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

Researchers at the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research used mice to examine the immune system’s response to the flu (Hagedorn, para. 2).

 

Often there are no page numbers on a website, but there may be reference markers of some kind you can use in place of a page number. (paragraph, heading, etc.)


There is a comma in a parenthetical citation after the author's name if the following reference begins with a word (e. g. Doe, ch. 1).

Newspaper - Database

Newspaper article in an online database or subscription service

(MLA 5.6.4)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. "Article Title." Periodical Title Publication Date: Page Numbers. Title of Database. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

Works Cited Page:

Example

Gearino, Dan. "Gun Control - Rally Demands Tougher Regulation." Columbus Dispatch 24 Feb. 2013: 6B. Newsbank Newspapers. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.

 When citing a newspaper in an online database, cite it as you would cite a print newspaper. Add the name of the database (italicized) after the publication information. Change the medium of publication from "Print" to "Web" and add the date you accessed the database.

 

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

Gearino reported that the rally was held to demand tougher gun control legislation (6B).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

 In Columbus, OH, a rally was formed to demand tougher gun control legislation (Gearino 6B).

Scholarly Journal - Internet

Scholarly journal on the web

(MLA 5.6.3)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. "ArticleTitle." Journal Title Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page Numbers. Web. Day Month Year of Access.
 

Example

Fike, David S., et al. “Improving Community College Student Learning Outcomes in Biology.” Electronic Journal of Science Education 15.1 (2011): 46-49. Web. 15 Jan. 2012.
 

When citing a scholarly journal on the web, cite it as you would cite a print journal. Change the medium of publication from "Print" to "Web" and add the date you accessed the journal.

 


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

Fike et al. determined that the Keller method should be considered for use in community college settings where there are race/ethnicity disparities in learning achievement (48).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

The Keller method should be considered for use in community college settings where there are race/ethnicity disparities in learning achievement (Fike et al. 48).

Scholarly Journal - Database

Scholarly journal article in an online database or subscription service

(MLA 5.6.4)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Periodical Title Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page Numbers. Electronic Database Title. Web. Day Month Year of Access.

 

Works Cited Page:

Example

Rosenberg, Jared. "Polygynous Marriage Linked to Higher Child Mortality." International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health 35.2 (2009): 56-57. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 May 2010.

 When citing a scholarly journal in an online database, cite it as you would cite a print journal. Add the name of the database (italicized) after the publication information. Change the medium of publication from "Print" to "Web" and add the date you accessed the database.

 


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

Rosenberg's study tested the theory that children born from polygvnous marriages had a greater risk than those born from monogamous marriages of dying before the age of five (56).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).

Children born from polygvnous marriages had a greater risk than those born from monogamous marriages of dying before the age of five (Rosenberg 56).

Abstract of a Journal Article

Abstract of a journal article

(MLA 5.4.8)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Article Title.” Descriptive Label. Periodical Title. Volume.Issue (Year Published): Page Numbers. Electronic Database Title. Web. Day Month Year of Access.

 

Works Cited Page

Example

Rosenberg, Jared. "Polygynous Marriage Linked to Higher Child Mortality." Abstract. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health 35.2 (2009): 56-57. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 May 2010.
 

When citing an abstract from a journal, include the word Abstract (neither italicized nor in quotation marks) after the title of the article. Click on this link for a partial list of Descriptive Labels.

 


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Author’s name used in text (signal phrase).

Rosenberg's study tested the theory that children born from polygvnous marriages had a greater risk than those born from monogamous marriages of dying before the age of five (56).

 

Author’s name not used in text (no signal phrase).


Children born from polygvnous marriages had a greater risk than those born from monogamous marriages of dying before the age of five (Rosenberg 56).

Film Accessed Online

Film Accessed Online

(Hulu, Netflix, Amazon, etc.)

(MLA 5.7.3 and 5.6.2d)

Basic Format

Film Title.  Director name.  Distributor, Year of Release. Name of Service Provider. Medium of Publication. Day Month Year of Access.
 

Works Cited Page:

Ex. 1 - Film Title begins the citation

American President. Dir. Rob Reiner. Perf. Michael Douglas and Annette Benning. Warner Home Video, 1999. Netflix. Web. 15 May 2013.
 

Cite details as you would any film (include the title, director, distributor, year of release. Add the name of the online service (in italics), medium of publication (Web), and day month, year of access.

You may include other data that seems important such as the names of performers, producer or screenwriter between the title and the distributor.

If you are citing the contribution of a particular individual, begin with that person's name and contribution.


Ex. 2 - Name of Director begins the citation

Reiner, Rob, dir. American President. Perf. Michael Douglas and Annette Benning. Warner Home Video, 1999. Netflix. Web. 15 May 2013.


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)


In 1995, Michael Douglas portrayed the President of the United States (American President).


If the item is alphabetized by title on the Works Cited page, the full title (if brief) or a shortened version appears in the parenthetical citation.

Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)


Rob Reiner was nominated for a Best Director-Motion Picture Golden Globe Award for The American President in 1996.

For items that have no page number or reference marker, and the item is alphabetized by a person's name on the Works Cited page, it is often better to include the name of the person (author, editor, director) in the text rather than in a parenthetical citation. Use the person's name that begins the corresponding Works Cited entry.

Either method is correct.

 

YouTube

 

YouTube

(Online Video Clip/

Podcast

(MLA 5.6.2d)

 

 A "video clip" is a short piece of video, sometimes part of a longer program.

 

 


A "podcast" is a digital audio or video file or recording, usually part of a themed series, that can be downloaded from a Web site to a media player or computer.

 

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. (or Screen Name or Corporate Author). “Segment Title.” Media Type. Website Title. Website Publisher/Sponsor, Day Month Year Posted. Medium of Publication. Day Month Year of Access.
 

Works Cited Page:


Use the screen name as the author name when the author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets (ex. Funnyman123 [John Smith]).

 

Ex. 1 - Online Video Clip

TheKheinz. “JK Wedding Entrance Dance.” Online video clip.  YouTube. YouTube, 19 July 2009. Web. 02 Sept. 2009.
 

Ex. 2 - Podcast

SpanglishBaby. "Bilingual Education and Dual Immersion Programs 101." Podcast. SpanglishBaby.com. YouTube, 28 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.
 

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)


Children with autism and Down syndrome can be raised to be bilingual (SpanglishBaby).

 Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

TheKheinz posted a video of their wedding showing the wedding party dancing down the aisle to the song "Forever" by Christine Brown.

 Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

Webcast/Podcast

Webcast/Podcast

(MLA 5.7.1)

 

 

 

 

A "webcast" is a delivery of media over the Internet using streaming technology.
 

 

"Streaming" is a method of transmitting a media file in a continuous stream of data that can be processed by the receiving computer before the entire file has been completely sent.
The audio and video files may be prerecorded, but streaming can also accommodate a live feed over the Internet.

 

 

 

 

 

A "podcast" is a digital audio or video file or recording, usually part of a themed series, that can be downloaded from a web site to a media player or computer.

Basic Format
“Episode or Segment Title.” Other pertinent information. Program or Series Title. Podcast Publisher or Sponsor, Day Month Year Posted. Medium of Publication. Day Month Year of Access.

 

Works Cited Page:


Ex. 1 -  Viewed online; streaming

"Who Made the First Cell Phone Call?" Narr. Jake Tapper. The Lead. CNN. Cable News Network, 3 Mar. 2013. Web. 5 Mar. 2013.

 

Unless you are featuring an individual (director, performer, narrator, etc.), the episode or segment title begins the citation, in quotation marks. If you are featuring an individual, that person's name is listed first, followed by his/her contribution (ex. Tapper, Jake, narr.)

 

Ex. 2 - Downloaded to another device

“Episode or Segment Title.” Other pertinent information. Program or Series Title. Podcast Publisher or Sponsor, Day Month Year of Release. Type of file.
 "Team of Rivals." Narr. Doris Kearns Goodwin. U.S. Presidents Podcast. LearnOutLoud.com, 22 Jan. 2011. MP3 file.

 If the podcast is downloaded to another device, cite it as you would a digital file. The "medium of publication" becomes the type of file that is downloaded and there is no need for the "date accessed" field.

 


In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)

Martin Cooper made the first-ever phone call from a DynaTAC prototype ("Who Made the First Cell Phone Call?").

 

Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

In the "Team of Rivals" segment, Goodwin discusses her book of the same name about 16th president, Abraham Lincoln.

 Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

Blogs, Listservs

Blog, Listserv

(MLA 5.6.2)

 

"Blog" is short for web log which is a list of journal-type articles posted on a Web page.

 


"Listserv" is short for list server, which is a  program that automatically sends messages to multiple e-mail addresses on a mailing list. People usually need to subscribe to a listserv.

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Posting Title.” Website Name. Publisher, Day Month Year Posted (if available). Web. Day Month Year Accessed.


Use the screen name as the author name when the author name is not known. If both names are known, begin the entry with the screen name and place the author’s name in brackets (ex. Funnyman123 [John Smith]).

 

Works Cited Page

Example - Blog

Bartholomew, Anne. “Omni Daily Crush: What We Eat When We Eat Alone.” Omnivoracious. Amazon.com, 14 Aug. 2009. Web.17 Aug. 2009.
Example - Listserv
Smith, Joan. "Re: Updates Made to Factiva." Yammer. Columbus State Community College, 16 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 Apr. 2012.

 

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)

Significant changes have been made to the database, Factiva (Smith).

 

Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

In her blog, Omni Daily Crush, Bartholomew reviewed the book, "What We Eat When We Eat Alone" by Madison and McFarlin.

 

Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

E-Mail

E-Mail

(MLA 5.7.13)

Basic Format
Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial. “Subject Line.” Message to FirstName LastName. Day Month Year the message was sent. E-mail.

 

Works Cited Page

Example

Doe, Jane. "Re: Online Databases." Message to John Smith. 12 Apr. 2012. E-mail.

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)

Some students are having trouble accessing the online databases (Doe).

 Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

Jane Doe mentioned that some of her students are having problems accessing the online databases.

 
Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

Tweet

Tweet

(www.mla.org>MLA Style>FAQs)

Basic Format
 
Author Real Last Name, First Name Middle Initial (user name, if both are known). “Entire Text of the Tweet without changing the capitalization.” Day Month Year the message was sent, Time message was sent reflecting reader's time zone. Tweet.

Begin the entry with the author's real name and, in parentheses, user's name if both are known and they differ. If only the user's name is known, give it alone (ex. 123smith.)

Work Cited Page:

Example

Dessen, Sarah. "Our weeping cherry tree is so gorgeous right now. Must share a picture, as public service." 9 Apr. 2013, 3:02 p.m. Tweet.

If the full text of the Tweet is too long to put in the citation, truncate the text by using just a few words at the beginning of the text to identify it. (Ex. above: "Our weeping cherry tree."

 In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)

The weeping cherry trees are particularly beautiful right now (Dessen).

 Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

According to Sarah Dessen, her weeping cherry trees are particularly gorgeous right now

Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

Facebook

Facebook

(MLA email response, 4/15/2013)

Basic Format
 
Author Last Name, First Name Middle Initial, if known (Screen Name, if known). “Title of Posted Work or Generic Label Such as Comment." "Title of the Entire Facebook Page, if Known and not Previously Given." Author or Editor of the Page, if Known and not Previously Given. Facebook. Facebook, Day Month Year of Posted Work. Web. Day Month Year Accessed.

 

 Works Cited Page:


Ex. 1 -  MLA Example

Jane Doe posted her poem called "Summer Days" on a Facebook page called "Shakespeare Insights" which is edited by James Lewis.

Doe, Jane. "Summer Days." "Shakespeare Insights." Ed. James Lewis. Facebook. Facebook, 1 May 2011. Web. 15 June 2011.

 


Ex. 2 - Group Name

Heart of Ohio myTeam Triumph. "Cerebral Palsy: What I Want You to Know." Facebook. Facebook, 12 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.

 

Ex. 3 - User Name

 

Hannah, Kristin. "Tour." Facebook. Facebook, 9 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Apr. 2013.


Ex. 4 - User Name (Screen Name)

DogWalkHappy [Miranda Howes]. "It is refreshing to hear this coming from a vet." Facebook. Facebook, 20 Apr. 2013. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

 

If there is no title on the post, use a few words of the post itself, in quotation marks. Use just enough to distinguish between the post you are citing and other posts. 

 

 

In the Text:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

 

Ex. 1 - Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)


Some veterinarians are more open-minded about feeding pets a raw diet (Howes).

 

Ex. 2 - Author/title used in text (signal phrase)


Heart of Ohio myTeam Triumph has excellent information about cerebral palsy on their Facebook page.

 


Items posted on the web usually have no page numbers or reference markers so it is acceptable to cite them by author, screenname, or title in the text with or without a signal phrase.

Digital File (PDF, Word, JPEG, MP3, etc.)

Digital File

(MLA 5.7.18)

Basic Format

Author Last Name, First Name Middle InitialTitle of Source. Publisher Location:  Publisher, Publication Date. Digital file.
 

To cite a digital file, first determine what kind of source you are citing (book, pdf, photograph, sound recording) and follow the relevant guidelines for formatting that type of source. In the place reserved for "Medium of Publication", record the digital file format and follow with the word file. If you can't identify what kind of file it is, use digital file.

 

Works Cited Page:

Ex. 1 - Ebook

Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. New York: Levine, 1999. Nook file.
 

Ex. 2 - PDF File

Columbus State Community College. Library. Library Quick Guide: Evaluating Web Sites. Columbus, OH: CSCC. File last modified on Feb. 2013. PDF file.
 

You may decide to cite more facts about the file, such as the latest modification if there are several versions of the same document.
 

In theText:

MLA uses an "author-page number" format for in-text citations.

Example 1. Ebook

Author/title not used in text (no signal phrase)

Dumbledore is introduced in Chapter 2 of Chamber of Secrets (Rowling, ch. 2, par. 2).

E-readers vary in the way they indicate page numbers. If the page numbers change when you change other settings, it's better to use a location  in your in-text citation instead of page numbers. See example above.


Ex. 2 - PDF file


Author/title used in text (signal phrase)

In the Library Quick Guide, Evaluating Websites, Columbus State Community College asserts that it is critical to choose reliable sources of information.

Since MLA uses an author-page number format for in text citations and in the case of this source, there are no page numbers, the source is cited in the text only with no parenthetical information.

 

 

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